List of Presidents of the Philippines
1.Emilio Aguinaldo (Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy) -
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines’ victorious revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. Aguinaldo became the Philippines’ first President. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country’s president, and the longest-lived (having survived to age 94). His marriage was in 1896 with Hilaria Del Rosario (1877–1921). They had five children (Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., María and Cristina) Hilaria Aguinaldo died because of leprosy. His second wife was María Agoncillo (1882–1963).
After the outbreak of Spanish American War. Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines from Hong Kong, arriving on May 19, 1898.
On 24 May, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator.
On 12 June, at Aguinaldo’s ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence was read. The act had been prepared and written in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who also read its proclamation.
On 18 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On June 23, another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government, with himself as President
Aguinaldo died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on February 6, 1964, at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. A year before his death, he had donated his lot and his mansion to the government. This property now serves as a shrine to “perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896.”
In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas made a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front of the bill. The back of the bill features the declaration of the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898.
2.Manuel L. Quezon (Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina) -
(August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines.(Note: Govt. relating only to the Philippines, and not any other states that have existed centuries ago) Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897–1901).
Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the “Father of the National Language”.
During his presidency, Quezón tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. Other major decisions include reorganization of the islands military defense, approval of recommendation for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, tackling foreign strangle-hold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform and the tackling of graft and corruption within the government. Quezón established an exiled government in the US with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. During his exile in the US, Manuel Quezón died of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York.
Quezón suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in a ”cure cottage” in Saranac Lake, New York, where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton and re-interred in Manila at the Manila North Cemetery before being moved to Quezon City within the monument at the Quezon Memorial Circle.
3.José P. Laurel (José Paciano Laurel y García) -
(March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been recognized as a legitimate president of the Philippines.
José Paciano Laurel was born on March 9, 1891 in the town of Tanauan, Batangas. His parents were Sotero Laurel, Sr. and Jacoba García. His father had been an official in the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldoand a signatory to the 1898 Malolos Constitution.
While a teen, Laurel was indicted for attempted murder when he almost killed a rival suitor of his girlfriend. While studying and finishing law school, he argued for and received an acquittal.
Laurel received his law degree from the University of the Philippines College of Law in 1915, where he studied under Dean George A. Malcolm, whom he would later succeed on the Supreme Court. He then obtained aMaster of Laws degree from University of Santo Tomas in 1919. Laurel then attended Yale Law School, where he obtained a Doctorate of Law.
Laurel began his life in public service while a student, as a messenger in the Bureau of Forestry then as a clerk in the Code Committee tasked with the codification of Philippine laws. During his work for the Code Committee, he was introduced to its head, Thomas A. Street, a future Supreme Court Justice who would be a mentor to the young Laurel.
Upon his return from Yale, Laurel was appointed first as Undersecretary of the Interior Department, then promoted as Secretary of the Interior in 1922. In that post, he would frequently clash with the American Governor-General Leonard Wood, and eventually, in 1923, resign from his position together with other Cabinet members in protest of Wood’s administration. His clashes with Wood solidified Laurel’s nationalist credentials.
4.Sergio Osmeña (Sergio Osmeña y Suico) -
(9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon’s death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65. A founder of Nacionalista Party, he was the first Visayan to become President of the Philippines.
Prior to his succession to the Presidency in 1944, Osmeña served as Governor of Cebu from 1901–1907, Member and Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1907–1922, and Senator from the 10th Senatorial District for thirteen years, in which capacity he served as Senate President pro tempore. In 1935, he was nominated to be the running-mate of Senate President Manuel Quezon for the presidential election that year. The tandem was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1941.
Osmeña is the patriarch of the prominent Osmeña family, which includes his son (former Senator Sergio Osmeña, Jr.) and his grandsons (senators Sergio Osmeña III and John Henry Osmeña), ex-governor Lito Osmeña and Cebu City mayor Tomas Osmeña.
Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon’s death in 1944. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. After the war, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and the various executive departments. He continued the fight for Philippine independence. For the presidential election of 1946, Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. He lost to Manuel Roxas, who won 54 percent of the vote and became president of the independent Republic of the Philippines
After his defeat in the election, Osmeña retired to his home in Cebu. He died of both liver failure and breast cancer at the age of 83 on 19 October 1961 at the Veteran’s Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. He is buried in the Manila North Cemetery, Manila.
5.Manuel Roxas (Manuel Acuña Roxas) -
(January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. His term as president of the Philippines was also the shortest, lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days.
Manuel A. Roxas, third and last President of the Commonwealth and the first of the Republic of the Philippines, was born to Gerardo Roxas, Sr. and Rosario Acuña on January 1, 1892 in Capiz (now Roxas City). He was a posthumous child, for his father Gerardo had been mortally wounded by Spanish guardias civiles the year before, leaving him and his older brother Mamerto to be raised by their mother and Don Eleuterio, their maternal grandfather.
Roxas received his early education in the public schools of Capiz, and at age 12, attended St. Joseph’s Academy in HongKong. But after homesickness, he went back to Capiz. He eventually moved to Manila High School (later named the Araullo High School), graduating with highest honors in 1909.
Roxas began his law studies at a private law school established by George Malcolm, the first dean of the University of the Philippines College of Law. On his second year, he enrolled at U.P., where he was elected president of both his class and the Student Council. In 1913, Roxas obtained his law degree, graduated class valedictorian, and subsequently topped the first bar examinations with a grade of 92%, becoming the first ever bar topnotcher of the Philippines.
On May 8, 1946, President-elect Roxas, accompanied by US High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, enplaned for the United States to discuss with the American authorities the vital matters affecting the Philippines. On May 28, 1946, Roxas was inaugurated amidst impressive ceremonies as the last President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. The inaugural ceremonies were held on the grounds of ruined, shell-blasted Legislative Building and were witnessed by huge crowds of around 200,000 people. He delineated the main policies of his administration, mainly, closer ties with the United States, adherence to the newly-created United Nations Organization, reconstruction of war-devastated country, relief for the masses, social justice to the working class, maintenance of peace and order, preservation of individual rights and liberties of the citizenry and honesty and efficiency of government office.
Roxas did not finish his term that was expected to end by 1950 because he died of myocardial infarction.
On the night of April 15, 1948, Roxas died at Clark Field, Pampanga. In the morning of his death Roxas delivered a speech before the US Thirteenth Air Force, in which he said:
|“||If war should come, I am certain of one thing–probably the only thing of which I can be certain–and it is this: That America and the Philippines will be found on the same side, and American and Filipino soldiers will again fight side by side in the same trenches or in the air or at sea in the defense of justice, freedom and other principles which we both loved and cherished.||”|
After the speech, he felt dizzy and was brought to the residence of Major General E.L. Eubank, where he died that same night.
On April 17, 1948, two days after Roxas’ death, Vice-President Elpidio Quirino took the oath of office as President of the Philippines, per line of succession.
In his honor, Roxas District (Project 1) in Quezon City and Roxas, Isabela was named after him .
6.Elpidio Quirino (Elpidio Rivera Quirino) -
(November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.
A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage ofTydings-McDuffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to become member of the convention that will write the draft of then 1935 constitution for the newly-established Commonwealth. At the new government, he served as secretary of the interior and finance under Quezon’s cabinet.
After the war, Quirino was elected vice-president in 1946 election, consequently the second and last for the Commonwealth and first for the third republic. After the death of the incumbent president Manuel Roxas in 1948, he succeeded the presidency. In what was claimed to be a dishonest and fraudulent1949 presidential election, he won the president’s office under Liberal Party ticket, defeating Nacionalista vie and former president José P. Laurel as well as fellow Liberalista and former Senate President José Avelino.
The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios. Quirino ran for president again in the 1953 presidential election, but was defeated by Nacionalista Ramon Magsaysay.
After his term, he retired to his new country home in Novaliches, Quezon City, where he died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956.
7.Ramón Magsaysay (Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay) -
(August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines (and seventh president overall) from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.
Ramon F. Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales on August 31, 1907 to Exequiel Magsaysay, a blacksmith, and Perfecta del Fierro, a schoolteacher. He entered the University of the Philippines in 1927. He worked as a chauffeur to support himself as he studied engineering; later, he transferred to the Institute of Commerce at José Rizal College (1928–1932), where he received a baccalaureate in commerce. He then worked as an automobile mechanic and shop superintendent. When World War II broke out, he joined the motor pool of the 31st Infantry Division of the Philippine Army. When Bataan surrendered in 1942, Magsaysay escaped to the hills, organized the Western Luzon Guerrilla Forces, and was commissioned captain on April 5, 1942. For three years Capt. Magsaysay operated under Col. Merrill’s famed guerrilla outfit and saw action at Sawang, San Marcelino, Zambales. Magsaysay was among those instrumental in clearing the Zambales coast of the Japanese prior to the landing of American forces together with the Philippine Commonwealth troops on January 29, 1945.
Magsaysay did not finish his term that was expected to end of December 30, 1957 because he died in a plane crash. On March 16, 1957 Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu City where he spoke at three educational institutions. That same night, at about 1 am, he boarded the presidential plane “Mt. Pinatubo”, a C-47, heading back to Manila. In the early morning hours of March 17, his plane was reported missing. It was late in the afternoon that day that newspapers reported that the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu and that 36 of the 56 passengers and crew aboard were killed; the actual number on board was 25, including Magsaysay. Only newspaperman Néstor Mata survived. Vice President Carlos Garcia, who was on an official visit to Australia at the time, assumed the presidency to serve out the last eight months of Magsaysay’s term.
An estimated 5 million people attended Magsaysay’s burial on March 31, 1957.
He is then referred to by the people the “Idol of the Masses”.
8.Carlos García (Carlos Polistico García) -
(November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines known for his “Filipino First” policy, which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party.
García was born in Talibon, Bohol to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polestico (who were both natives of Bangued, Abra).
García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.
Rather than practice engineering right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname “Prince of Visayan Poets” and the “Bard from Bohol”.
He started his political career in 1925, scoring an impressive victory running for congressman representing the third district of Bohol. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931. He was elected governor of Bohol in 1933 but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for the Philippine Senate but his term cut short during World War II. He took the post when Congress convened in 1945 after the Philippines was liberated from the Japanese.
9.Diosdado Macapagal (Diosdado Pangan Macapagal) -
(September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixthVice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.
A native of Lubao, Pampanga, Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government. He first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives, representing a district in his home province of Pampanga. In 1957 he became vice president in the administration of President Carlos P. Garcia, and in 1961 he defeated Garcia’s re-election bid for the presidency.
As president, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country’s first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party. He is also known for shifting the country’s observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day Filipino patriots declared independence from Spain in 1898. His re-election bid was defeated in 1965 by Ferdinand Marcos, whose subsequent authoritarian rule lasted 20 years.
During the Marcos administration, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would later draft what became the 1973 constitution, though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to later question its legitimacy. He died of heart failure, pneumoniaand renal complications at the age of 87.
10.Ferdinand Marcos, Sr. (Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.) -
(September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949–1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate(1959–1965). He was the Senate President from 1963–1965.
While in power he implemented wide-ranging programs of infrastructure development and economic reform. However, this was largely overshadowed by hisauthoritarian way of ruling the country after 1972. His administration was marred by massive corruption, nepotism, political repression, and human rights violations.
In 1983, his government was accused of being involved in the assassination of his primary political opponent, Benigno Aquino, Jr. Public outrage over the assassination served as the catalyst for the People Power Revolution in February 1986 that led to his removal from power and eventual exile in Hawaii. It was later discovered that he and his wife Imelda Marcos had moved billions of dollars of embezzled public funds to the United States, Switzerland, and other countries, as well as into alleged corporations during his 20 years in power.
Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to parents Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin. He was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church. He was of Filipino (specifically Ilocano), Chinese, and Japanese descent.
In December 1938, Mariano Marcos, his brother Pio, his son Ferdinand, and his brother-in-law Quirino Lizardo were prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan, one of Marcos’ father’s political rivals. On September 20, 1935, the day after Nalundasan (for the second time) defeated Mariano Marcos for the National Assembly seat for Ilocos Norte, Nalundasan was shot and killed in his house in Batac. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos eventually doing the killing. In late January 1939, they were denied bail and in the fall of 1939 they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty only of contempt of court. The Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which on October 22, 1940, overturned the lower court’s decision and acquitted them of all charges but contempt.
Marcos attended college at the University of the Philippines, attending the prestigious College of Law. He excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, he was a valuable member of the university’s swimming team, boxing, and wrestling. He was also an accomplished and prolific orator, debater, and writer of the university’s newspaper, he also became a member of the ROTC and later an instructor to the subject.He took the 1939 bar exam and passed it with an almost perfect score despite the fact that he was incarcerated during the time he was reviewing. In 1939, while incarcerated, Ferdinand Marcos graduated cum laude. If he had not been put in jail for twenty seven days, he would have graduated magna cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu international honor society, and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor society which, 37 years later gave him its Most Distinguished Member Award.
He claimed to have led a guerrilla force called Ang Maharlika in northern Luzon during the Second World War, although his account of events was later cast into doubt after a U.S. military investigation found that many of his claims were false or inaccurate.
11.Corazon Aquino (Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino) -
(January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines. She is considered an icon of democracy, and was titled by TIME Magazine in 1986 as its ‘Woman of the Year’.
A self-proclaimed “plain housewife”, Aquino was married to Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., the staunchest critic of then President Ferdinand Marcos. Senator Aquino was assassinated on August 21, 1983 upon returning to the Philippines after three years in exile in the United States. After her husband’s assassination, Aquino emerged as the leader of the opposition against the Marcos administration. In late 1985, when President Marcos called for a snap election, Aquino ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel as her vice-presidential running mate. After the elections were held on February 7, 1986, and the Batasang Pambansa proclaimed Marcos the winner in the elections, Aquino called for massive civil disobedience protests, declaring herself as having been cheated and as the real winner in the elections. Filipinos enthusiastically heeded her call and rallied behind her. These series of events eventually led to the ousting of Marcos and the installation of Aquino as President of the Philippines on February 25, 1986 through the People Power Revolution.
As President, Aquino oversaw the promulgation of a new constitution, which limited the powers of the presidency and established a bicameral legislature. Her administration gave strong emphasis and concern for civil liberties and human rights, and peace talks with communist insurgents and Muslim secessionists. Aquino’s economic policies centered on bringing back economic health and confidence and focused on creating a market-oriented and socially-responsible economy. Aquino’s administration also faced a series of coup attempts and destructive natural calamities and disasters until the end of her term in 1992.
Succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos as President in 1992, Aquino returned to private life although she remained active in the public eye, often voicing her views and opinions on the pressing political issues. In 2008, Aquino was diagnosed with colon cancer and, after a one-year battle with the disease, died on August 1, 2009. Her son Benigno, III would be elected president himself and was sworn in on June 30, 2010.
12.Fidel Ramos (Fidel “Eddie” Valdez Ramos) -
(born March 18, 1928), popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.
Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazon Aquino first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines(AFP) and, later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991.
During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos upon the invitation of then Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, was hailed as a hero even though he was not part of the plan by many Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of the late strongman Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly-established revolutionary government of President Aquino, following the downfall of Marcos from power in February 1986. Previously, he was the AFP vice chief-of-staff, chief of PC/INP under President Marcos.
Under Ramos, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nation’s major industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his hands-on approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various international magazines and observers as Asia’s Next Economic Tiger.
However, the momentum in the economic gains made under the Ramos Administration was briefly interrupted during the onset of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Nevertheless, during the last year of the term, the economy managed to make a rebound since it was not severely hit by the crisis as compared to other Asian economies.
He is the only Filipino to receive an honorary British Knighthood from the United Kingdom, the GCMG or the Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George. This was bestowed to him by Queen Elizabeth II in 1995 for services to politics and government.
To date, Ramos is the first and only non-Catholic President of the Philippines. He belongs to the Protestant United Church of Christ in the Philippines.
13.Joseph Estrada (Joseph “Erap” Ejercito Estrada) -
(born José Marcelo Ejercito on April 19, 1937) was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.
Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years. He leveraged his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as mayor of San Juan for seventeen years, as Senator for one term, then as Vice President of the Philippines under the administration of President Fidel Ramos.
Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. In 2000 he declared an “all-out-war” against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted by People Power 2 after the prosecution walked out of the impeachment court when the Senator Judges voted no in the opening of the second envelope.
In 2007, he was sentenced by the special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusion perpetua for plunder, but was later granted pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He ran for president anew in the 2010 Philippine presidential election, but lost to then Senator Benigno Aquino III.
14.Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Maria Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo) -
(born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representativesrepresenting the 2nd District of Pampanga. She was the country’s second female president (after Corazón Aquino), and the daughter of former PresidentDiosdado Macapagal.
She was a former professor of economics at Ateneo De Manila University where Noynoy Aquino was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazón Aquino. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20, 2001. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine president—after Jose P. Laurel—to pursue a lower office after their presidency.
She is currently residing at La Vista Subdivision in Quezon City.
15.Benigno Aquino III – (Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III) -
(born February 8, 1960), also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010.
Aquino is a fourth-generation politician: his great-grandfather, Servillano “Mianong” Aquino, served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress; his grandfather,Benigno Aquino, Sr., served as Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1943 to 1944; and his parents were President Corazon Aquinoand Senator Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino, Jr. Aquino is a member of the Liberal Party. In the Liberal Party, Aquino held various positions such as Secretary General and Vice President for Luzon. Aquino is currently the Chairman of the Liberal Party.
Born in Manila, Aquino graduated from Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and joined his family in their exile in the United States shortly thereafter. He returned to the Philippines in 1983 shortly after the assassination of his father and held several positions working in the private sector. In 1998, he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province. He was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. In 2007, having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to term limits, he was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines.
Following the death of his mother on August 1, 2009, many people began calling on Aquino to run for president. On September 9, 2009, Aquino officially announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election, held on May 10, 2010. On June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 presidential election. On June 30, 2010, at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila, Aquino was sworn into officeas the fifteenth President of the Philippines, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Conchita Carpio-Morales.
Although the official residence of the President is the Malacañang Palace, Aquino actually resides in the Bahay Pangarap (House of Dreams), located within the Palace grounds.
- source WIKIPEDIA